Improvement of Health and Education Chenchus

Background of the Chenchus: Chenchus are considered to be the most primitive and one of the two tribes in south India that still largely depend for its survival on food gathering and hunting which are their traditional occupations. Since time immemorial they have inhabited the forest-clad hills on either sides of the Krishna River  in Prakasham, Kurnool, Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh and Mahabub Nagar,   Nalgonda Districts and plain areas of Ranga Reddy District of  Telangana and even today the forests are their true habitat.

 There is no community in India poorer in material possessions than the Chenchus. The Chenchu is one of the first tribe to be declared as a Primitive Tribal Group based on the criteria of low literacy, declining or stagnant population and pre agriculture stage. According to Project Officer ITDA Srisailam Chenchus have not come out of food gathering stage and are 100 years behind by rest of the society. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/Chenchu-relocation-will-be-a-disaster/article16243990.ece.  Relocation of the certain Chenchu habitations and implementation of  forest laws , their habitat has under gone a sea change, bringing in its wake not only adverse economic conditions but also psychological and cultural effects. Most of the Chenchu families are of nuclear type and the average size is 4.38, which is considered to be  very small and it can be attributed to under utilization / non availability of Medical services and high incidence of Morbidity(diseases) and Mortality (deaths).

With regard to occupation basically the Chenchus are food gatherers, hunters. Recently a few Chenchu families have taken to agriculture here and there and also started working as labourers and also migrating to far off places like Meghalaya. They are living under abject poverty despite Government spending more than 200 Crores of rupees since 1975.

The district wise number of Villages and Chenchu Population is as follows.

S.NO District No. of Mandals No. of Villages Pop(2001)
1. Mahabub Nagar 10 111 10406
2. Prakasham 07 72 13321
3. Kurnool 12 33 7915
4. Guntur 03 46 6376
5. Nalgonda 05 17 1069
6. Ranga Reddy 07 33 2700
Total 44 312 41787

Out of the 312 Chenchu habitations, 124 are found in the wild life sanctuary. These habitations are in the districts of Mahabub Nagar, Prakasham, Kurnool and Guntur. Out of these 124 habitations, 24 are in the core area of the tiger project.

Settlement Pattern: The houses of Chenchus are very simple, scattered and either conical or rectangular   in shape. Most of these families keep their goats and sheep in their houses or very close to them, where they cook, sleep and preserve their small quantity of grain. 

Most of the Chenchu Habitations are relocated from the forest areas and pucca houses are constructed with inferior materials. The houses constructed in the nineties and later are already in dilapidated condition. All these houses are with single room, measuring 14 feet in length and 9 feet in width. Some of these houses are constructed in continuous blocks of 6 to 11 houses without providing space on all sides. These houses are more congested than the houses constructed in urban slums. The contractors are constructing these houses in continuous rows to reduce cost of construction by avoiding fourth wall in all the inside houses in a row. Ceilings are weak and cracks have developed in some houses. Basements are not completed in many houses. Doors, windows and toilet rooms are not provided in almost all the houses. Project Officer and the Asst Manager Housing, deputed to ITDA are not able to ensure provisions of minimum sanitary facilities and quality of the houses. During the rainy season, leakage problems are observed in many of these houses. 

Food habits: The Chenchus collect Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP) items like gum, Tamarind, honey and myrobalms and sell them at the Girijan Cooperative Corporation (GCC) depots and buy essential commodities like rice, pulses, chillies, oils, salt etc from G.C.C. depots. During lean season they collect roots, tubers and leaves from the forest and subsist on them. 

The culinary habits of Chenchus  are simple and eat Ambali (gruel) Sankati, roti and cooked rice called Annam. Ambali is prepared with jowar, ragi or bajra. The grains are pounded to remove outer layer, washed in water and again re pounded. The re pounded grain is cooked in water and consumed after adding salt to it.   Sankati is also prepared with pounded cereals like ragi, jowar and bajra. The pounded cereals are poured into boiling water and stirred with wooden spoon till it becomes semi solid. Sankati is then eaten with chutney or other curry. Recently Ambali and Sankati is replaced by rice, which is supplied by G.C.C through Public Distribution system.  Chutney/curry of Chenchus is known as karam or thokku prepared with chillies. Chillies are grounded into a paste by adding onions, salt and tamarind. The common chutney i.e. karam or thokku is mixed with rice and then eaten. 

Livelihoods: The primary occupation of most of the Chenchus is collection and sale of Non Timber Forest Produce (NTFP).Very few families depend on Agriculture cultivated in the forest enclosures given by the Forest Officials during the British rule. Relocated families are still depending on the collection of NTFP from the original habitations. 

Problems being encountered by Chenchu Community: Chenchu Community lives in the Nallamalla areas of Kurnool, Prakasham, Guntur districts of AP and Mahabub Nagar, Nalgonda, , and plain areas of Ranga Reddy Districts of  Telangana. All the Chenchu habitations are far away from district head quarters and lie in the rain shadow region of  both the states. Major portion of the area lies in the Rajeev Gandhi Tiger sanctuary and now declared as inviolate  (areas with minimal or no human presence) areas.  special laws are applicable in this area.

Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA) is functioning from Hyderabad/ Srisailam since 1975. Recently bifurcated into two parts. All the activities of the line departments are brought under the purview of ITDA for administrative convenience. However single line administration has contributed to further deterioration of the standard of living of the Chenchus, than improving it because of Institutional disabilities at the office of the Project Officer ITDA. 

Banjara Development Society (B.D.S) has conducted a house hold survey in 120 habitations of Kurnool and Prakasham districts. Analysis of the data revealed that the Chenchu community is facing innumerable problems related to Health, Education, Agriculture, Livelihoods, Housing, and Communication, despite spending huge amounts for their welfare and development.   Officials responsible for execution of welfare and Development Programmes show no commitment and are corrupt to the core. PHCs are ill equipped, absconding staff and vacant positions at the    PHC’s are attributed for the medical services not being provided as anticipated. Development Programmes like land development, digging and energisation of tube wells is not taken up seriously. Financial support extended by Government is not properly applied and utilized for the intended purposes in the field.  

The reality of Chenchu Education Programme:  Integrated Tribal Development Agency Officials took keen interest in the construction of school buildings, staff quarters, compound walls and community halls, but least bothered in improving the quality of education of the Chenchu children.   Infrastructure created by spending millions of rupees is underutilized. Neither the staff occupied quarters nor the ITDA officials insisted  the staff to occupy the quarters and stay within the premises to closely monitor the progress of the children. 

Government Girijan Primary Schools: There are around 117 schools under ITDA Srisailam and as per the ITDA records, 2161 children are studying in these primary schools. These schools are located in the small habitations and the teachers who stay in Mandal head quarters rarely come to these schools. There is no mechanism to monitor the functioning of these schools. Neither the parents nor the teachers have concern for the children's' education. Children of 4-6th class are not even familiar with alphabets and numbers. 

Schools aplenty but no Children:  There are 46 residential schools((Ashram, Guru Kula and Mini Guru Kula Patashalas) functioning under ITDA Srisailam and as per the records of the  academic  year 2007-08, the students' strength was 8162. (BDS organised an inspection programme of Dr. K. Rajya Laxmi -MLC and former Vice Chancellor of Padmavathy Mahila University).  Staff is recruited for all the schools and hostels. Names of the Children to the sanctioned capacity are entered in the attendance registers, irrespective of the presence of the children. 100 percent attendance is marked to all the children(whose names are on the rolls) and money for the provisions is drawn to all children as per the strength in the registers and food is not served as per the menu, even to the few children who are present in the classes.  Only 10 to 20 percent of the children attend the classes in the residential schools located in the Chenchu habitations and 30-40 percent of the children attend the residential schools located in the villages. Attendance is high in the Residential schools located in the villages is because of children from other communities are also admitted in these residential schools. A few upper primary schools have been upgraded into high schools even through there are no Chenchu children in those schools. Play material, cosmetics, boxes and plates are rarely given to the children.  These Malpractices were reported in the local press in the year 2004 itself. Nobody is interested to look into these aspects because, TWD, ITDA Officials get their (hafta) share (30%) from the Head Masters regularly. Schools aplenty but no children. http://www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/Schools-aplenty-but-no-students/article15140795.ece. Right from  the Project Officer(ITDA) to an Attender of the Residential School knows this fact. However no efforts were initiated to improve the attendance of the children over a long period.  

Early Childhood Education:  Learning environment which is conducive for promotion of social, emotional and aesthetic Development of child is totally absent in the Angan Wadi Centres located in the Chenchu habitations. Preschool activities like children coming to a common place, singing songs and playing games is not found in the habitations. On the other hand children come to a common place at a particular time and collect the N. Supplement and leave the premises immediately. Preschool material like story cards, charts, indoor and outdoor play material puzzles, school readiness kits are not supplied to all the Angan Wadi and Mini Angan Wadi Centres in the area. Angan Wadi   Workers are not recruited to the entire mini Angan Wadi Centres. 

Health  issues plaguing the  Chenchu   Community: Diseases are caused due to unhygienic and insanitary conditions prevailing in and around the houses in Chenchu habitations. Drinking water sources like wells, tanks and streams get contaminated due to mixing of human excreta from open defecation.  Animals that are tied in the houses also contribute to the cause of certain diseases. Common diseases that are afflicting the Chenchus are respiratory tract diseases, gastric disorders, Scabies, Malaria, Viral fevers, eye infections. Epidemics due to Gastro Enteritis and Malaria are regular feature.  T B is rampant in roadside as well as interior habitations and it has taken a heavy toll of Chenchus.

A Chenchu woman mourns the death of her baby in Chinnarutla near Srisailam. A tribal showing his scratch marks.

Maternal Mortality Rate (MMR), Infant Mortality Rate(IMR): Infant Mortality Rate (IMR) is high among the Chenchu community due to measles, diarrhoea and diseases associated with malnutrition.  The major cause of MMR is mal nutrition, low literacy levels among Chenchu women, child marriages. Deep roots of orthodox thinking, lack of care for women’s health, medical facilities, immunization services and inadequacy of interval between two children.  

 As per the Tribal Cultural Research and Training Institute the IMR and MMR among the Chenchus is 215 and -7 (1000 live births) respectively. Integrated Tribal Development Agency (ITDA)processed 250 death claims of Chenchus during 2005-2006. (Chenchus in Nallamalla under siege K. Venkateshwarlu www.hindu.com/2007/08/09/stories/2007080954690400.htm. Tribals scratch officials  watch K.Venkateshwarlu www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-national/tp-andhrapradesh/Tribals-scratch-officials-watch/article14700544.ece).  

 It is observed that due to several reasons including remoteness of the place, lack of transport facilities, fear of wild animals, varying periodicity of each case as well as the ignorance and apathy of the Chenchu Community, the expected periodic coordinated immunization is delivered tardily. There is tendency to tamper with expected periodicity, club more than one or two patients as well, as vaccines and injections are administered in one visit. The reliability of the record sheets is doubt full. 

 At present there is no system to monitor regularly and systematically the pregnant mothers’ health during the early and late stages of pregnancy in Tribal areas (Chenchus). More over no persuasive effort is made to safely move the pregnant mothers in time to regular health facility. The occasional visits by ANMs are not able to fill the health system gaps particularly in the remote Chenchu Gudems. 

Decreased and Depletion of livelihood sources: The primary occupation of most of the Chenchus is collection and sale of Non Timber Forest produce (NTFP) and very few families  depend on agriculture in the forest lands and assigned lands given by ITDA after relocation into the plain areas.  

Due to relocation, Chenchus of many habitations have been alienated from the lands in the forest enclosures and this loss is not fully compensated by the ITDA through land purchase and development programme. Forest department is taking up tree planting operations in the lands left behind by the Chenchus. The relocation didn’t result in creating new livelihoods and on the other hand it has imposed burden of travelling more distance to collect forest produce. 

The Chenchus are not able to procure NTFP to sustain their basic requirements due to depletion of forest produce owing to Environmental conditions & unscientific methods of collecting of gum, honey, Madapaku leaves, frequent droughts and relocation due to police combing operations. 

Trainings: ITDA has initiated training Programmes in Bee keeping, Fashion Technology, Motor winding, Tailoring, Driving, etc. Lack of interest from the community and proper monitoring and follow up action by the ITDA team, the anticipated benefits are not being  utilised by the Chenchu Community. The trainings have benefited ITDA staff and the organizers of the training programmes. Chenchu youth who have been trained in different trades are still idle or continuing the old activity. 

Agriculture and Horticulture: plough bullocks, seeds and land development activities are supposed to be taken up regularly under the agriculture programme. Every year, a fair amount of budget is provided to buy  several pairs of plough bullocks, but the Officials have a different practice.  Plough bullocks of farmers of nearby revenue villages are selected and tagged with a number and the entire amount is distributed among the ITDA Officials, beneficiaries, owner of the bullocks and Government Veterinary Doctor, without actually buying the bullocks.  For the two financial years (2004-05, 2005-06) 157 and 300 pairs of plough bullocks respectively were sanctioned. Hardly a few pairs of bullocks are visible in the Chenchu habitations.  Officials procure seeds of their choice and distribute  seeds to the Chenchus  after the sowing season is over. Sometimes these seeds would be lying in the go downs without being distributed to the Chenchus. 

ITDA procures saplings of Mango, Sweet orange & citrus and distribute them to the Chenchus for planting in their fields. ITDA Officials often ignore the basic fact that the saplings require water and select the farmers without irrigation sources. The Officials even provide maintenance support for the plantations without verifying whether the saplings are alive or dead.  

Kudumula Pothiah showing the defunct bore well in his farm at Chintala in Prakasham district. The Hindu10-08-2007. Widow Shivamma who was certified as dead by the fraudsters. The Hindu 7-04-2011.

Land Development: ITDA purchases land and  distributes it to the Chenchus. On many occasions boundaries are not fixed and the lands are lying fallow in some habitations.  ITDA  entrusts the job of ploughing these lands to Chenchus who have acquired tractors on loan from banks with the subsidy/margin money from ITDA and other sources. These tractor owners collude with ITDA staff and claim money without ploughing the lands. ITDA claims that it has rehabilitated a woman Naxalite of Palutla / Venkatadripalem through distributing a tractor purchased from the loan sanctioned by the Government Agencies and Nationalized Banks. In reality a tractor belonging to her brother was handed over to her before Bank and Revenue Officials. Project Officer takes pride in presenting the photograph of this fraudulent act in Official Documents prepared for various purposes. Finally lands belonging to the Chenchus remain fallow despite of money being spent for land development by ITDA.  http://www.hindu.com/2011/04/07/stories/2011040758940500.htm  being spent for land development by ITDA.  http://www.hindu.com/2011/04/07/stories/2011040758940500.htm                                                                                           http://www.hindu.com/2007/08/10/stories/2007081061120600htm

 Goal /mission - To enhance quality of life of the Chenchu a Primitive Tribal Group: 

 Objective 1: To improve Literacy levels / education of the Chenchu Children.  

Activities: Community Organizers (COs) would organize parents meetings in all the habitations in their jurisdiction and motivate the parents to send their children to schools by explaining the need and advantages of education. COs also collect information about the school going age children and counsel the parents whose children do not go to the schools through door to door visits. COs and Field Coordinator would motivate the Teachers to attend the schools regularly through personal meetings. ITDA & TWD Officials would be sensitized through friendly persuasive interaction to take up monitoring of the functioning of the schools regularly. Sensitization of the Officials would be done by the Project Coordinator through personal meetings with the Officials, Media coverage, seminars and public hearings.  Project Coordinator also facilitates to raise the issues in the Legislative Assembly & Council  through the Elected Representatives if necessary. 

Outcome:  Schools are regularly opened, classes are conducted. Teachers and children’s presence is ensured. Food and other provisions are provided to the children on regular basis. Performance of the children would be improved. Enrolment is increased and dropout rate is drastically reduced.  

Indicators:  Number of schools regularly functioning with the attendance of teachers and children. Children being provided with Food and other provisions regularly as per menu.  Knowledge acquired by the children. 

Objective 2:  To improve health status of the Chenchu Community:

Activities: Community Organizers-  (CO’s) collect data of the children, pregnant women and lactating mothers from the cards or records and directly from the households that are not covered by the health staff and maintain the data sheets at the BDS office.  

 CO’s would empower the Chenchu Community on preventive and curative aspects and prepare them to avail healthcare services from PHCs. CO’s treat the Chenchus for common ailments at the habitations and advise the sick people to avail health services at the PHCs and also inform the doctors at the PHC’s about the illness of the people. CO’s build rapport and coordinate with the ANMs, Lady Health Visitors as well as AWWs and CHWs at the ground level and involve them in delivering the services as per the schedule. 

 CO’s accompany the health staff in their visits to habitations and help them to overcome fear of the wild animals. COs’ assistance in the provision of health services in the habitations and company during the journey to a habitation will certainly ensure regularity of checkups and immunization of pregnant women, lactating mothers and new born infants. This serves automatically the social audit function of monitoring the reach of the programmes to the population living in remote areas.  

CO’s record weight, height, blood pressure, collect blood and urine samples for   facilitating examinations of Haemoglobin, Glucose, albumin and HIV for pregnant women, lactating mothers and children as per the need. Also help in the administration of T.T injections, IFA tablets.  

CO’s would enable all the pregnant women reach regular Health Facilities (PHC’s) and avail the care under Janani Suraksha Yojana and get also the benefit of cash incentive. CO’s help can take the form of  monitoring probable range of time of delivery in each case, persuading and arranging movement of the patient from remote locality to road side village in advance, arrange ambulance- 108 vehicle  from there to the PHC or designated Hospital in need based way and helping in admission in time. They help in claiming cash incentive and meeting needed incidental expenses. They render help in obtaining the certificates of Below poverty line and age  certificates from the Sarpanch or Panchayat Secretary to enable the patient to get the cash incentive as prescribed under the scheme.   

 In case of an emergency i.e. in the event of the inability of a pregnant woman from a remote Chenchu Gudem moving before the delivery, the local CHW, AWW and CO of BDS arrange to supplement traditional delivery process with minimal modern medical and health care. For this purpose they are trained in mission mode under this project by expert trainers under the guidance of director of academy of nursing studies/ Red Cross or Institute of Preventive Medicine or any other agency which has expertise in the field.  

Identification of TB suspects: CO’s of BDS and Community Health Workers would identify the people with persistent cough for more than 15 days or as per the RNTCP guide lines and list of TB suspects would be prepared for all the habitations. A copy of the total TB suspects would be given to the Project Officer ITDA Srisailam,  Joint Director(TB), District TB Control  Officer. Their help would be enlisted at the appropriate time. 

Sputum collection, transportation and testing at DMCs: CO’s would collect the sputum cups from the local PHCs and give them to the identified people in all the Chenchu habitations. The identified people would be explained or demonstrated to collect the sputum in the cups. CO’s would collect the cups from the TB suspects and transport the sputum boxes and hand over them at the Designated Microscopy Centres for sputum analysis. Lab Technician would analyse the sputum and report would be prepared.

Treatment of Sputum Smear (SS) positive and negative patients: SS positive patients would be registered and drugs would be provided to them after explaining how and when to take the drugs.  CO’s of BDS and CHW of a particular habitation monitor the intake of medicines regularly so that patient does not give up taking of medicines at the slightest relief. Antibiotics would be given to sputum smear negative people and would be evaluated for efficacy of the drugs by the CO’s and the CHW’s in all the habitations. Sputum tests would be repeated for all SS negative people if the cough still persists after the administration of antibiotics. X-rays would be taken for the people who has persistent cough even after the administration of antibiotics. If the X ray findings confirm TB, anti TB treatment would be initiated to them and non TB treatment to those whose  x rays does not confirm the presence of TB. TB Patients would be advised for the side effects of TB drugs by the Medical Officers as per the need and would be persuaded to continue the TB drugs

CO’s will also be trained in First Aid and provided with First Aid kits. They will also be made aware of the disease normally occurring in the forest areas. They are provided with basic non prescription medicines to be used till regular medical aid is arranged.  

Community Health Workers (CHWs) & Angan Wadi Workers (AWWs) are thoroughly trained in all the health issues as per the module prepared by Academy of Nursing Studies for Commissioner, Family Welfare Department Government of Andhra Pradesh. Trained CHWs & AWWs would be involved in the entire process i.e. in the community’s entitlements from the health staff and ways to monitor the accountability of the health staff through various checks. Community Organizers form mothers committees in all the Chenchu habitations, orient them on all the issues related to health in general and immunization, pregnancy related issues in particular. CO’s  motivate the trained CHWs,  AWWs and Mothers Committees(MCs) through frequent interaction and facilitate to establish rapport with health workers and gradually involve CHWs, AWWs and MCs  in the implementation process of the health activities in their habitations even after  the with drawl of BDS from the area.  

Community Organizers would prepare the community for accompanying the health workers to their habitation from strategic points. Ex. Marripalem is 6 KM from Chintala a road side habitation. From Chintala the health worker is expected to walk on the kutcha road where the risk of attack from wild animals like wild bears is always present. To avoid wild bear attacks Chenchus walk in groups. B.D.S would empower the Chenchu Community and evolve a mechanism to access the services of health worker by accompanying the health worker from Chintala to Marripalem. There are quite a number of interior habitations which require this kind of arrangement.   

 Referral services would be provided by the PHCs & ITDA i.e. by arranging Ambulance services to shift the patient to Area, Specialty & Super Specialty Hospitals located at Markapur, Kurnool, Guntur and Hyderabad. BDS would fill the gaps in the system by providing fuel /vehicle in emergencies, food and other incidental expenses to the attendants. BDS would also ensure transport facility for all the pregnant women for institutional deliveries in the designated hospitals where services of the specialist doctors are available round the clock. 

Advocacy and lobbying with authorities would be undertaken for regular supply of medicines through media and other interventions by the Field Coordinator and the Project Coordinator.  

Health staff would be sensitized through personal meetings, print and electronic media for providing services at the Habitations and PHCs by CO’s, Field Coordinator and the Project Coordinator.  

During the visits to the habitations CO’s collect information of water sources and inform the Field Coordinator if repairs to the tube wells are required. Field Coordinator would inform the Mandal Development Officer and facilitate for the repairs of the tube wells. 

Outcome: Regular visits to Chenchu habitations, attending PHCs regularly and showing concern & caring for Chenchu Community by the health staff. All the children, pregnant women &lactating mothers immunized. Increased institutional deliveries.  

Increased no of Chenchu patients availing services at PHCs & Referral hospitals and reduced incidence of morbidity and mortality.  

 Indicators: # Visits to the Chenchu habitations by the doctors and staff. #  Patients being treated at PHCs. Reduced dependency on private doctors. Adequate & regular supplies of medicines at the PHCs.  Reduced morbidity & mortality among the Chenchu Community.  Increased Institutional deliveries. 

 Objective 3: To enhance Nutritional status of the Chenchu community

 Activity:  Vegetables, leafy vegetables, fruits which are a source of vitamins and minerals useful for growth and protection of the body from preventable diseases were made available in a part of the year with the efforts of Banjara Development Society through the support of Sir Dorabji Tata Trust. COH’s   would   empower the women in general and pregnant, lactating mothers and mothers with children below six years in particular on the importance of balanced diet and how to access it through IEC campaign and personal meetings. COH’s   would also ensure the cultivation of Vegetables, leafy vegetables and fruits in their backyards and their consumption by supplying seeds and monitoring the entire activity from sowing of seeds, weeding, plant protection, growth and consumption.  

 COH’s sensitize Angan Wadi staff to provide Nutrition on regular basis through personal meetings and trainings would be are organized for the Angan Wadi Workers as most of the Angan Wadi Workers have limited education and are not performing duties other than providing nutrition and immunization services (preschool education, referral services, health checkups and nutrition & health education) as expected of them. 

 COH’s are responsible to implement the above mentioned activities.

Outcome: Intake of Nutritional food by the Chenchu Community is enhanced.  

Indicators: Availability and consumption of nutrition material by the Chenchu Community.  Improved health of children and elders.  Reduced Nutritional disorders among the children pregnant women and lactating mothers and IMR, MMR and Mortality among the Chenchu Community.  

Objective 4: To facilitate Pensions to Old aged, Widows and Disabled persons

Activities: COE’s & COH’s would process applications forms and submit to the Mandal Development Officer for sanction of pensions to Widows, Old aged. Disabled persons would be taken to the Designated Medical Specialists for issue of Disability Certificates.

Outcome: All the eligible Widows, Old aged and disabled persons get  monthly pension.   

Objective 5: To empower the Chenchu community on personal hygiene, sanitation and other relevant issues.  

Activities: COHs &COEs would empower Chenchus on personal hygiene, sanitation and importance of education, nutrition and fundamental rights through village level meetings and CBO trainings. 

Outcome: Sensitized Community demanding services from the service providers.  Improved personal hygiene of the Chenchu Community and sanitation in the Chenchu habitations.  Indicators: Improved living conditions of Chenchu Community. Accessing of services by the Chenchu Community. Reduced morbidity and mortality among the Chenchu Community.

Budget for increasing Literacy levels of Chenchus from 10% to 35% covering an area of 2500 sq kms of accessible and inaccessible areas of Nallamalla Forests

Particulars. 1styr   II yr  III yr
Insurance & Maintenance of Safari & Motor cycles. 0.70 0.80 0.90
Vegetable seeds- 150 habitations  2.00 2.25 2.50
Orientation to BDS Staff.  Hon, travel& food exps. Of 2 Resource Persons (RPs).4 persons x Rs 4000 Per day x 2days = Rs 32000. 0.32     
Food, Accommodation & Travel Expenses of BDS Staff. 2 days x Rs 400 per  day x 30 Persons 0.24    
Orientation to VTDA Presidents and Secretaries (President & Secretary from each habitation). Food, travel exps of 300 nos x Rs400x 2spells. 2.40 2.70 3.00
IEC campaign. 150 habitations x Rs 2500 per habitation 3.75 3.75 3.75
Referral services (shifting of critically ill to Area, Teaching &Super specialty Hospitals at, Guntur, Kurnool and Hyderabad +Medicines. 1.50 1.75 2.00
Sensitization of ITDA, TWD, Education, Forest Officials. 1.25 1.50 1.75
  Community Organizers’ Hon.  11. nos x Rs 8000 (1yr) x Rs 9000 (2yr) x Rs 10000 (3yr) x12months. 10.56 11.88 13.20
Travel expenses of Community Organizers. 10 nos x Rs.2000 (1yr) x 2500 (2yr) x 3000 (3yr) 12 months. 2.40 3.00 3.60
Field Coordinator Hon.2 x Rs10000 (1yr) x 12000(2 yr) x14000(3yr) x12m. 2.40 2.88 3.36
Travel expenses 2nos x Rs 3500 (1yr) Rs 4000 (2yr) Rs 4500(3yr) x12 Months. 0.84 0.96 1.20
Administration – Coordinator’s   Honorarium.     Rs 20000 (1yr) Rs22000 (2yr), Rs 250000 (3yr), x 12Months. 2.40 2.64 3.00
Travel Expenses of Coordinator. Rs 8000 (1yr), Rs 10000 (2yr), 12000 (3yr) x 12 Months.  .96 1.20 1.44
Office rent at Dornala , Achampet &Hyderabad(very nominal) 1.50 1.75 2.00
Postage & Phones. Stationery, documentation& Audit. 1.75 2.00 2.25
TOTAL in Lakhs. 34.97 39.06 43.95
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